Robert Fergus, February 1, 1876
We have no apology to offer in presenting a Directory thirty- six years after its original date. The new settler will see no use for it, but the “Old Settler” can read and refer to it with pleasure. It is hoped that the parties named in this work will never feel ashamed of the days when they earned an honest living “by the sweat of their brow.”
- Honor and shame from no condition rise;
Act well your part— there all the honor lies.
In September, 1839, the Common Council ordered the revision and printing, in pamphlet form, of the Laws and Ordinances of the City. The work was tendered to Messrs. Rudd & Childs, printers, but they, not being able to find sufficient funds, offered to transfer the contract to the subscriber, who accepted and fulfilled it. There were six blank pages at the end, and Mr. Childs suggested the filling of them up with the names of the business men of the City, which was immediately done; no canvass was necessary, and the names were never written—each name, as thought of, was forthwith set up by the subscriber, until the six pages were completed. It never was supposed that the names of all the business men of the City were included in this list, but the necessary pages were filled up, and the title given those names the Chicago Business Directory. There were no numbers on any street (except Lake Street), at that time—the numbers now given are those of the present day.
On the completion of the Laws and Ordinances, fifty copies were delivered to the City, and the sum of $25.00 was ordered paid, January 27th, 1840. (See Common Council Proceedings, published in the Daily Chicago American, Jan. 2, and 29, and February 22, 1840.)*
- CORPORATION PRINTING.
Robert Fergus, $25.00.
About fifty copies were sold to the citizens at fifty cents per copy; the balance of the 500 were never used in public.
This Chicago Business Directory was reprinted last year in pamphlet form, and a fancy history given to it. The subscriber began to complete the Directory, commenced in 1839, some two years ago, and can now say that our “Old Settlers” pronounce it complete. Had there not been incorrect statements made, by interested parties, perhaps this Directory never would have been printed; like the original, this never was canvassed for, or even written.
The first Directory of this City was carelessly canvassed for by James Wellington Norris, attorney, in the latter part of 1843. It was printed and published by William Ellis and Robert Fergus. The publishers had no trouble about the division of the profits of that speculation. Norris compiled three or four similar works in the years following, and, perhaps, with greater profit to all concerned.
The present publisher has since had some experience in Directories in this City. In 1854, 1855, and 1856 he again tried to place the Directory before the citizens in an improved form, but, unfortunately, his connections were not trustworthy, and, after considerable loss, he retired from the business.
In the compilation of this Directory, much assistance has been rendered by many of our old and intelligent citizens, for which the compiler returns sincere thanks.
This work has the sanction of Hon. John Wentworth, Hon. Julian S. Rumsey, Hon. Buckner S. Morris, Hon. Mahlon D. Ogden, James II. Rees, Esq., Joseph H. Gray, Esq., James A. Marshall, Esq., J. K. Botsford, Esq., Asahel Pierce, Esq., Peter Graff, Esq., Bennett Bailey, Esq., P. R. Morgan, Esq., and many other intelligent citizens, whose recollections of the days of 1839 are still bright.
Milwaukee Daily Sentinel, April 25, 1845
Chicago.—A new Directory got up in Chicago, shows that that city in December, 1844, contained 10,170 inhabitants, 3,243 of which were of foreign birth; 871 new buildings were erected during the year—
Total value of exports, $783,504.23, of which wheat and wool furnished the largest portion, 891,895 bushels of wheat, and 96,635 lbs of wool being shipped to make up the amount.
Alton Telegraph & Democratic Review, October 30, 1846
To the attention of the publisher, J. W. Norris, Esq., we are indebted for a copy of the Chicago Directory for 1846 and 7. It is a neat little volume of over 100 pages, containing al the information usually found in similar publications, judiciously arranged, besides a variety of Business Cards, Election Returns, and other matters of general interest to commercial men, travelers, &c.
Chicago Tribune, January 4, 1851
DIRECTORY FOR 1851.—Will be published on Tuesday, the 17 inst., Danenhower’s Chicago City Directory and Advertiser for 1851, contianing Alphabetical List of the mechanics and Business-men with their several places of residence; also brief Notices of the Religious, Literary and Benevolent Associations of the city. Military, Fire Departments, etc., etc., with a map of the city. Price $1 per copy.
Publisher, 123 Lake st.
Chicago Tribune, August 1, 1856
CITY DIRECTORY FOR 1856.—E. H. Hall begs to advise his numerous patrons that he has commenced upon the new Directory for 1856-7, and hopes to have it ready on or about the lst October next. In order to ensure greater accuracy, he would recommend each one to give his name, business and location in full, and to take the trouble to see that the canvasser has it correct. This most important point being secured, he has all confidence, from the experience he has had in the business, of coming out with a work which will give satisfaction to all. He would also take this opportunity to caution his friends against any spurious productions, purporting to be the only complete Directory, but which the most cursory examination will show to be incomplete, inaccurate, and disgraceful to any city, evidently got up without either experience or knowledge of the business which to a work of he kind is indispensable.
In conclusion, E. H. H. invites business men to send in their cards for insertion, which will be taken at the usual rates, assuring them that particular pains will be taken in making every advertisement conspicuous, while the constant use of the work, together with its wide circulation, makes it the best advertising medium extant. City Directory Office 189 Lake street, up stairs.
Chicago Tribune, September 18, 1856
Hall’s Directory for 1856-7.—We are glad to notice that the publishers of the old Annual Directory of our city have succeeded in completing the canvass for their forthcoming work, and that they fully expect to have copies ready for delivery to subscribers by the 1st October. As many complain of the inaccuracy of the Directory published by Case & Co. this summer, they would do well to call early at No. 6 Wells street, and have their names inserted right in the new work. For particulars are would refer our readers to a card in our advertising columns.
Chicago Tribune, September 19, 1857
Office of City Directory.
144 North Clark street, Chicago
TO THE EDITOR OF THE DAILY TRIBUNE-My attention has been drawn to the announcement of a new City Directory, to be published by Cooke & Co., made in yesterday morning’s Times, in which the editor of that paper indulges in a piece of uncalled for calumny against all previous publications of a similar kind, and which requires a few words from me.
Were not the character of that vile organ of S. A. Douglas and the whisky faction so generally known, and as thoroughly despised by the respectable portion of this community, it might be necessary to show the injustice and shame-faced falsity of this cowardly attack; but as the lying predilection of that foul sheet are universally admitted, I will not trouble you or your readers further than to say that I have too well founded a confidence in the judgment and opinion of the citizens of Chicago to fear, in the slightest degree, splenetic notices of this sort, and too high an opinion of myself to treat them and their author in any other way than with the contempt they deserve.
Thus much for the blear-eyed factotum of the Times. About the Directory, a few words more, and I have done.
Having compiled five successive issues of the Chicago Directory, from 1850 to 1855, I may at least, and without undue egotism, claim to be competent as any one else to judge of the merits and defects of previous and subsequent issues of the same work; and knowing as well as I do the difficulty, or utter impossibility, of producing a perfectly accurate Directory of Chicago, I am quite satisfied to let the ungrateful task pass for the future to other hands, and abide the reputation of my past work.
I cannot, in conclusion, forego the opportunity which this unexpected occasion presents of answering the numerous inquires which have been made of me during the past summer with regard to my anticipated work.
I was and am still unwilling to commence the canvass of the city without an efficient corps of canvassers. These I have every reason to believe, will soon be here under the superintendence of one of the most efficient Directory men in the country. For the rest I leave time and the inclination of the business men of Chicago themselves to determine. Grateful to them for their generous confidence and support during my Directory career, and with many thanks to yourself, associate editor and members of the Press generally (Times always excepted,)
I remain, dear sir, respectfully yours,
EDWARD H. HALL
Chicago Tribune, November 2, 1857
D. B. COOKE & Co.’s DIRECTORY OF CHICAGO.—This work, the copy of which was saved from the late conflagration, is rapidly approaching completion. The canvass for names and other information is now finished, and the compilers, Tanner, Halpin & Co., are engaged in arranging the whole matter for the press, so that at an early day we may expect to have this valuable business assistant on our table. D. B. Cooke & Co., the enterprising Booksellers of this city, deserve great credit for the liberal manner in which they have entered upon this publication, determined in point of accuracy, durability, neatness of binding and typography, it shall be superior to any work of the kind heretofore issued. It is intended to combine a general and classified Business Directory with a very full appendix of general information, interesting to both the citizen and the stranger. The specimen shown to us promises for the work a large circulation, rendering it a valuable advertising medium. The advertisements being distributed separately on colored paper through the body of the book, will be more satisfactory to the advertisers. The publication office is located at No. 10, Clark street, up stairs, where parties contemplating changes, or those wishing to avail themselves of the opportunity to display their business cards, would do well to make early application.
Chicago Tribune, September 9, 1858
NEW DIRECTORY.-Messrs. S. C. Griggs & Co., 39 and 41 Lake street, will publish during the next month The Chicago Business Directory and Commercial Advertiser, for 1858-9. The work is to be accurate and reliable, and a complete Business Directory of the city, wherein will be found the name of every business man, properly arranged and classified under each appropriate business heading. In addition to the mere name of the firm we understand it is the intention of the publishers to give, in connection therewith, the individual names of each member of the firm, place of business, &c.; this new feature, combining as it were, a “Copartnership Directory,” with the above, will make it of general interest to the mercantile community and invaluable to the legal profession.
It will, we understand, be a neat volume of 12mo size, and will be furnisbed to subscribers at one dollar per copy.
D. B. Cooke & Co.’s City Directory, 1859
View of the City of Chicago
Chicago Tribune, June 23, 1859
NEW DIRECTORY.—We have been permitted to examine the sheets of a new Directory of the City of Chicago, which will be published by D. B. Cooke & Co., on Saturday next; and we may confidently say that a no more complete and comprehensive work of the kind was ever issued in any city of the West. We believe it to be far more accurate than most books of the sort; because extraordinary pains have been taken to insure correctness, and because the entire canvass of names has been made since the second day of May. It contains a good map of the city, the name and residence of every man in Chicago, a very copious business directory; and an Appendix containing much local and general information which is of great value to men of every profession, and which can nowhere else be obtained in a space so condensed. One of the curiosities of the Appendix is a reprint of the first Directory published in Chicago—that of 1844—containing about eighteen hundred names. The book before us contains 85,000 names—an increase of 6,000 in a single year! The last fact is conclusive evidence of the thoroughness of Mr. Cooke’s canvass. But, we refer to the advertisement in this day’s paper, in which the merits of the New Directory are set forth.
Chicago Tribune, May 25, 1860
DIRECTORY OF CHICAGO FOR 1860.—The canvass for this work in now rapidly progressing. It is needless for us to urge upon the business community the importance of having a good Directory of a city like ours. It is equally unnecessary for us to state that for the past two years D. B. Cooke & Co. have issued the best Directories ever published in this city. But it should be understood and impressed upon the minds of those who. benefit so largely by the use of a Directory that the enterprise so far has not remunerated the publishers. This should not be allowed to continue. Is it well understood in older and more densely populated cities that the subscription price for a Directory does not pay for the book, consequently the proprietors hare to depend largely upon the advertising department for profit in their undertaking. The regular Directory of a city presents a medium unsurpassed and scarcely equalled by that of any other for the display of mercantile and professional cards. It is of the utmost importance to the interests of our city that go useful and necessary a publication should by liberal patronage be placed on a permanent and paying basis.
We do respectfully but most earnestly urge upon our business men for their own interest, and the credit of our city, to come liberally and spiritedly, up to the mark and enable the publishers to produce a work of which our citizens may feel proud. The publishers bare thirty competent and intelligent agents in the field collecting the necessary information, and the compilation is under the charge of Mr. T. M. Halpin, a gentleman who has proved his fitness and competence for the task, by compiling the Directory of this city for the past two years, and by other Directories in several Western cities. D. B. Cook & Co. are properly too jealous of their reputation to trust so important a work in untried hands, and the public may rest assured that no effort on the part of the proprietors will be wanting to make the Directory of Chicago for 1860 a model work of its kind. We sincerely wish them the most abundant success. The price of the work will be $2.50, but will be furnished to outsiders at $2.00. Office of compiler, 111 Lake street, under D. D. Cook & Co’s Bookstore.
E. B. Myers, City Directory Office for D. B. Cooke & Co.
111 Lake Street
Chicago Tribune, July 20, 1861
CITY DIRECTORY.—The new Chicago Directory for 1861 is to be issued to-day to subscribers, by Messrs. Bailey & Halpin, the publishers. It is a neat and excellent volume, of whose leading features and merits we shall speak in a day or two, The mechanical execution of the book is excellent. The binder, W. J. Wilson, has made his share of the same most creditable to himself. The embossed printing on the cover we learn is done by Mr. Wilson, by a new adaptation of electrifying, which certainly gives very handsome results, and at a far less cost than other usual modes of doing similar work.
Chicago Tribune, February 19, 1862
CITY DIRECTORY—CAUTION.—We learn that sone one is obtaining signatures and advertisements for a City Directory in opposition to the regular Directory published by Halpin & Bailey, who have succeeded to Messrs. D. B. Cooke & Co., the former publishers. Several have informed Mr. Bailey that they signed for it under the impression, and were made to believe it was theirs. This is to say that they have no agents, and when they have, they will be furnished with written authority, except Mr. D. B. Cooke, who has kindly consented to wait upon some of his old friends.
Chicago Tribune, July 25, 1861
MESSRS. HALPIN & BAILEY’S CHICAGO DIRECTORY.—The Chicago City Directory for
1861-62 has just been published by Halpin & Bailey. Besides containing all the names of citizens, it also has a carefully classified business register and street and avenue directory. This directory, like its predecessors, is gotten up in good style, and remarkably accurate.
In the City Directory for 1860, there were 28,224 names. Allowing to each family an average of four persons, the population was 112,896. In the new Directory there are 30,880 names, being an increase of 2,664 over last year, or an increase in the actual population of 10,430, and making the fair total population of Chicago at present about 120,000.
Chicago Tribune, July 25, 1862
THE NEW DIRECTORY.—We have received Halpin & Bailey’s new City Directory for 1862. It is an elegantly prepared volume, and in every respect the finest directory yet issued in this city, In addition to the names of residents, it contains a complete street directory, and a carefully prepared list of hotels, banks, railroads, business houses, and all the associations in the city. It is a perfect municipal vade mecum, and should be in every man’s possession. Messrs. H. & B. are entitled to credit for the very superior manner in which they have published it.
Chicago Tribune, June 19, 1863
THE NEW DIRECTORY—INCREASE IN POPULATION.—Messrs. Halpin & Bailey, than whom there are few men more correct and careful in this important class of labor—are vigorously pushing forward the work upon the compilation of the new City Directory. They have already fifteen pages of names in print, up to “Collins,” and the increase thus far is 1,100 names of heads of families. If the increase is proportionate throughout the alphabet, this would show an addition of 10,000 names, and allowing four persons to a family—of about 40,000 population in Chicago, during the past gear. The Directory will be considerably larger than ever before, and the expense and labor are immense, but the business men we understand, have come up nobly, and liberally encouraged the publishers as they should.
Chicago Tribune, August 3, 1863
THE NEW CITY DIRECTORY.-The Chicago public are indebted to Halpin & Bailey for the most concise, complete and comprehensive Directory ever published in this city. The work is of royal octavo, and contains 660 pages. Besides the names of all heads of families, it embraces a classified business register, street and avenue directory, and a register of all the churches and public institutions in the city. Every business man should have a copy. We understand they will be delivered to subscribers this week.
Chicago Tribune, August 22, 1863
MINIATURE MAP OF CHICAGO.– Halpin and Bailey have just issued their map of Chicago, to which all subscribers to the Directory are entitled. It is a perfect miniature of Van Vechten’s large city map, and is the most complete, condensed and comprehensive pocket map of Chicago ever published. The publishers have a few copies of their new City Directory on hand, which those desiring can procure, by applying at once at 130 Clark street, up stairs.1
James Van Vechten
Engraved and Printed by Chas. Shober
1863 Halpin & Bailey Chicago City Directory
BAILEY, JOHN C. W., (Halpin & Bailey), also Job and Book Printer, Proprietor and Editor of the Chicago Merchant’s Weekly Circular; Printer and Publisher of the Illinois State Gazette, Etc. Agent for Webb’s Wood Type, Office 130 Clark. (up stairs).
Chicago Tribune, June 7, 1864
BAILEY’S CITY DIRECTORY.—The City Directory now in course of preparation by Mr. J C. W. Baley is is a forward state, and will soon be ready to issue to subscribers. We are informed that the compiler intends to spare no pains to make it complete. He requests that all who have changed their location since the canvass was made report the fact to him without delay.
Chicago Tribune, July 19, 1864
HARPIN’S CITY DIRECTORY.—The City Directory of T. M. Halpin & Co., for 1864, is just issued. It is got up very neatly, comprehensively, and is as free from error as is possible in a work of of that kind where errors do most abound. The arrangement is good, and in addition to the usual lists of names, firms, streets, blocks, institutions, etc., it contains quite a valuable mass of information not always found in a directory. Mr. Halpin announces that the book will be ready for delivery to subscribers on Thursday neat.
Chicago Tribune, May 4, 1866
The City Directory.—Mr. J. C. W. Bailey published the announcement in our columns this morning that he has commenced the canvass for his annual Directory of the City of Chicago. We have no doubt that the work will be well done. Mr. Bailey is well known in the business here, having published directories in this city for the past ten years, and each issue is a great improvement on the preceding.
Chicago Tribune, July 16, 1866
The ninth “annual Chicago City Directory” is just issueed by J. C. W. Bailey. Esq., and is a ponderous tome, one as full of information as an egg is full of meat. We have not time to give it a critical examination—a work of no small magnitude—but can say from a cursory inspection that it appears to be as near perfection as is possible to make it, and far ahead of the Directory of former years.
We present the following minutes from the preface, tending to show what the Chicago of to-day is, with the compiler’s views of what it ought to be and will be in the not far distant future. The following are the numbers of names opposite each letter of the alphabet:
The total number of names in the Directory of Edwards, Greenbough & DeVed for the present year is 69,505, giving to Mr. Bailey an excess of 6.739 names, or nearly ten per cent.
The Business Directory exhibits this year a large increase of names under almost every description of business, as well as the learned professions. We find, this year, for example, Boot and Shoe Dealers, 256; Cigar and Tobacco Dealers, 121; Cigar Manufacturers, 27; Clothiers, retail, 95; Clothiers, wholesale, 33; Coal Dealers, 33; Commission Merchants, 459; Confectioners, 65; Dress Makers, 60; Drugs and Medicines, retail, 100; Druggists, wholesale, 14; Dry Goods, wholesale, 16; Dry Goods, retail, 93; Grain Elevators, 12; Flour Merchants, 17; Flour and Feed, 83; Flour Mills, 17; Furniture Dealers, 70; Furniture Manufacturers, 25; Grocers, retail, 613; Grocers, wholesale, 55; Hardware and Cutlery, 105; Hardware, heavy, 7; Hats, Caps and Furs, retail, 42; Hats, Caps and Furs, wholesale, 25; Insurance Agents, 53; Insurance Companies, Fire, 98; Insurance Companies, Life, 49; Jewelers, 42; Lawyers, 322; Lumber Deakers, 120; Meat Markets, 217; Merchant Tailors, 65; Music Dealers, 13; Physicians, 279; Painters, 108; Real Estate Dealers, 114; Saloons, 922; Tobacco Dealers, wholesale,62; and Wines and Liquors, 77.
The growth in our population and progress in improvements, is always the most suitable topic for a City Directory, being, as it is, more closely united with it than any other publication. It is, therefore, with considerable interest that we note progress in the erections of the most prominent public structures, it being impossible to record all the numerous private residences constantly going up, from early spring to late in the fall of every year. We merely glance at a few, namely: The Morrison Building on Clark street; the Otis building, corner LaSalle and Madison; the Star and Crescent Flour Mills at Randolph street bridge; Chicago University Building addition and its Telescope; Douglas Monument; forty new buildings outside the city limits, just west in the town of Cicero; the splendid Ice House of A. F. Croskey & Co., to hold 30,000 tons of ice; the Artesian Well Buildings; the New Building about to be commenced for the Young Men’s Christian Association, to include a Public Hall that is to seat 3,500 persons, and the contemplated New Street, in connection therewith, to open into Clark street at No. 164, between Madison and Monroe.
The chief proof of progress, however, is population. Taking, then, my annual record of names this year at 76,214, then deduct, possibly for ladies heads of families, widows, and ladies doing business on their own account, names of firms, which are mere repetitious in the aggregate, together with a few duplicates (which, having slight variations, are not discovered), making, in all, possibly 10,000, these deducted will leave 66,214, which, multiplied by four, the usual circulation to include wives and children, and we make up the grand total of 264,856 persons as the resident population of the city of Chicago.
That this city is destined to be the great Metropolitan City of the Lake, if not of the West, every indication points thereto, and therefore it becomes the duty of its City Council and Government to have expanded ideas of its commercial importance , and make suitable provision for the great influx of population that, ere long, will extend the area of the city North, South and West, not only with residences and palatial mansions, but with the busy hum of industry—spindles, looms and mills—for the production of those fabrics in wool and cotton that are now imported from the East.
In this increase, therefore, and prosperity, the breathing places of the city, must multiplied and enlarged. Parks of 7, 10 and 13 acres are but small places for the population of a great city. A park of 500 acres is needed, and, as we learn, may be accomplished on the North Side. Why not one on the South, and another on the West Sides of equal size? These objects must be accomplished shortly, if at all, or the opportunity be lost.
Our Lake Tunnel is in rapid progress, and approaches completion. This is one of the grandest enterprises the world has ever seen, and is an honor to those who conceived the idea and to those who have accomplished it. It will also elevate the engineering skill of our Board of Public Works and their Engineers, who have successfully superintended the operation. Pure water brought from a distance of two miles in the lake to supply the wants of the people, is one of the grandest and most beneficial works of the age.
The Tunnel projected under the river at Washington street, for communication of the South and West Sides of the city, by cars, carriages, wagons, &c., is another grand object to be accomplished. The vexatious delays of open-swung bridges, necessitated by the river traffic, and vessels passing in and out of the harbor, has long been a matter of great inconvenience. To tunnel the river is, therefore, a public benefit, and one second only to tunneling under and into the Lake. We hope to see this done rapidly, and also another between the North and South Sides of the city, adding two of the most important links to the chain of improvements so gigantically contemplated.
The book is well arranged, contains much valuable statistical information, is strongly bound, and contains a map of the city with guide to the streets. It will be found an indispensable addition to our business literature.
Chicago Tribune, June 18, 1867
It is only some forty days since that Edwards commenced the canvass for his City Directory, and yet, during that short period of time, he has brought out a work of eleven hundred or more pages, a copy of which he has laid upon our table. In mechanical execution, this book excels that of any previous year, whilst the contents are all that could be required in a Directory. The volume, though thinner than the issue of last year, contains in reality some ten thousand more names. The size of the book has been much reduced by the use of smaller type in several of its departments, and an increased length of printed matter in the pages. The change will be appreciated by all who use Directories, because of compactness and convenience for reference. We are informed by those who have taken the trouble to count, that the work contains ninety thousand names. Comparing this count with that of one year ago, the reader can see at a glance the rapidity with which Chicago is increasing in population.
Edwards is deserving great credit for bringing out his directory thus early. His work has been a laborious one, considering the magnitude, the immense field required to be traveled over in making the canvass, together with the compilation, printing and binding. It is by far the shortest space of time in which a like enterprise has been completed in Chicago, or any other Western city, and yet the book is remarkable for correctness in every feature. The enterprise of the publisher certainly will not go unrewarded by our citizens who appreciate energy and enterprise.
The labor required in publishing a Directory adequate to the wants of a city containing a population of over two hundred thousand, will astonish those who are unfamiliar with this branch of publishing. Mr. Edwards has had in his employ, since he commenced active operations, on the 2d day of May last, one hundred persons, including canvassers, compilers, proof-reader and printers. His perfect familiarity and long experience in the business of making directories, together with the facilities at his command—which are not excelled in any other city save New York—have insured his success.
If any of our readers will take the trouble to examine the sheves of the Chicago Historical Society, they will there find nearly a complete file of all the Directories ever published in Chicago, and the insignificance of the early editions, compared with those Directories published by Edwards, will appear at a single glance. The earliest edition we find there, is “Norris’ Chicago Directory for 1848,” a work of 153 pages, two and a half inches in width by five in length. It contained 120 pages of names in the general department, with fifteen pages of statistics. It was printed by Eastman & McClellan, in a style of typography not particularly pleasing to the skillful printers of the present day.
In 1849 a Directory was published by Hahaway & Taylor, and printed by J. J. Langdon. It contained 244 pages of names, and 20 pages of statistics. The Directory was about the same size as its predecessor, with a visible improvement in mechanical execution.
In 1851 the Directory was published by W. W. Danenhower, and printed by J. J. Langdon. This work contained 220 pages of names, 44 pages of statistical matter, and a well-written historical sketch of the city, by the late Colonel John A. Bross, in reference to the early settlement of Chicago and its advantages in a commercial point of view. The mechanical execution of this work was far in advance of all the others.
The Directory for 1852 was published by Udall and Hopkins, and printed by Langdon & Rounds. It contained 179 pages of names, twenty-two statistical pages, and sixty of advertising, and exhibited a still further improvement in the typographical appearance of the work.
Hall & Smith were the publishers of the Directory for 1853. This work contained about 230 pages, with an increased amount statistical information, and a decided improvement in its general appearance.
In 1854, Hall & Co. were the publishers of the Directory, containing 350 pages. Robert Fergus, printer.
In 1855 the Directory was compiled by E. H. Hall, and printed by Robert Fergus. It was a work of 205 pages and 140 pages of advertising, and in general appearance approximated somewhat toward the modern style. In this work, the business men of Chicago began to appreciate better the advantage of advertising in a Directory.
The Directory for 1856 was published by John Gager & Co., and printed by John Dow. It had some 500 pages of matter, and was still further improved in point of general execution.
The Directories for 1858 and 1859 were published by D. B. Cooke & Co. The former was compiled by Tanner, Halpin & Co., Scripps, Bross and Spears, printers; the latter compiled by T. M. Halpin, Press and Tribune print. These volumes contained each about 600 pages of closely printed matter, and the works were a credit to the enterprising publishers.
The Directory for 1860, although bearing the imprint of Messrs. Cooke & Co., was published and compiled by T. M. Halpin. Mr. Edwards, then a resident of St. Louis, and publishing the St. Louis Directory, furnishing the means to Mr. Halpin, enabling him to purchase the interest of Messrs. Cooke & Co. in the enterprise.
The Directory for 1861, ’62, ’63, ’64 and ’65 were published by Mr. Halpin. We find that this gentleman, now a resident of Memphis, published Directories in Chicago for nine consecutive years, a longer period than any other publisher.
Mr. Edwards commenced publication of his new Directory in 1866, after the abandonment of the field by Mr. Halpin, and it is to be hoped that he may long continue his valuable publication.
The following are a few statistics, copied from the work, showing some of the leading occupations of our citizens:
Insurance agents, 89; artists, 85; architects, 28; banking houses, 21; bakeries, 105; banks, 18; savings banks, 3; boarding houses, 429; boot and shoemakers, 335; wholesale dealers in same, 38; cigar and tobacco dealers, 194; commission merchants, 449; confectioners, wholesale and retail, 108; dentists, 58; distillers, 11; druggists, wholesale and retail, 140; dealers in dry goods, 251; flour and feed stores, 89; gents’ furnishing goods, wholesale and retail, 130; grain elevators, 14; grocers, wholesale and retail, 828; hardware and cutlery, wholesale and retail, 94; harness makers, 56; hats and caps, wholesale and retail, 30; hide and leather dealers, 59; hotels, 74; insurance companies, fire, life and accidental, 167; jewelers, 87; lawyers, 309; leather dealers, 28; lithographers, 11; livery stables, 35; lumber dealers, 137; meat markets, 110; merchant tailors, 88; milliners, 110; notions, 71; photograph galleries, 40; physicians and surgeons, 335; printers, book and job, 41; publishers, 53; real estate agents, brokers and dealers, 239; restaurants, 58; saloons, 1,261; sewing machine dealers. 20; stove manufacturers and dealers, 85; tailors and repairers, 156; transportation companies, 21; wagon manufacturers and materials, 64; winws and liquors, wholesale and retail, 95; wood and coal yards, 77.
Edwards, Greenbough & DeVed
69-73 Dearborn, Rooms 46, 49 & 50
Chicago Evening Post, May 4, 1868
The New City Directory.
The patrons of two rival City Directories, published for some years in this city, one by Mr. Richard Edwards, and the other by J. C. W. Bailey, received, a short time since, a printed circular announcing the consolidation of the publications, under the name of “Bailey & Edwards’ Union Directory.” This is a consummation which will be redound to the benefit of our business men, as the resources of both publishers combined will be devoted toward making the new work far superior to any ever issued in this or any other city. The canvass commenced to-day with a corps of men well schooled and drilled, and thoroughly competent to the task before them. They are provided with books and official authority by the publishers of the Directory, to canvass the districts allotted them, and all others not so authorized are imposters. Our business men have, in many instances, heretofore been swindled by unprincipled men, acting without authority, and they should therefore be on their guard. The canvassers this year are not allowed in any instance to collect moneys in advance for books, advertising, or otherwise. Let patrons make a note of this. The directory this year will be of vastly more importance than any ever yet issued, for the simple reason that there has been a large addition to our population, and the removals of the present month are far in excess of any other year. The directory this year will be a valuable advertising medium, as by the consolidation of the two rivals a large number of copies will be circulated. It will prove a valuable work, a credit to the city and the publishers.
Chicago Tribune, July 18, 1869
Mr. Richard Edwards, the indefatigable directory publisher of the Northwest, has just issued the General Directory of the City of Chicago, for the year 1869-70 (being the twelfth volume), and it bears the impress of much care and great labor in the canvass and the compilation. The very great increase in the number of names over the volume for last year has necessitated the use of smaller type, and yet the pages are as distinct and legible as new type nod mechanical execution con make them. The general appearance of the book is a credit to the publisher and an honor to the city for which it is issued. It contains over 1,200 pages of closely-printed matter, and, in addition to the general classification of names, a complete city and county record of much interest and value. The following extract from the introductory of the editor, will convey to the render some idea of the magnitude of this work, and the rapidity with which Chicago is increasing in population and importance:
- No better evidence of the prosperity of any cite can be obtained than by consulting the pages of its annual directory, and through these pages may be learned results in regard to population with as much accuracy as through given by means of an actual census. This directory contains nearly one hundred and forty thousand names, an increase over last year of some eighteen thousand. The ratio of multiplication in Eastern cities in computing the population from a directory is four to one; thus, if the directory contained one hundred thousand names, the city for which it was issued would have a population of four hundred thousand. Here, we place the ratio three to one—three persons for every name contained in the directory—and it gives Chicago to-day a population of at least three hundred and fisty thousand. We say this is no idle boasting, but with facts and figures to substantiate the assertion. To every citizen of Chicago this is a pleasing picture to contemplate, and forms the basis upon which our people so often make the prediction that the Garden City is destined, within the lifetime of many of its inhabitants, to be the largest in population of any on the Western continent.
The directory will be ready for delivery to subscribers to-morrow morning, and those who have not given orders, should call at the publication office, No. 125 Dearborn street.
Chicago Tribune, July 17, 1870
Through the courtesy of Mr. Richard Edwards, we have in possession of a proof copy of Edwards’ Chicago Directory for the year 1870. Like its predecessors in years past, the present volume, presents a very attractive appearance, and, after a casual examination, we are prepared to say that it is as full, complete and correct in all its details as the directory of any other city in the country, and far ahead of any that have preceded it in Chicago, The volume presents the goodly bulk of 1,200 pages, and contains 105,000 names of bona fide residents of this city, being 10,000 more than are contained in the directory for Boston, with all her suburbs into the bargain. According to the ratio by which populations are generally estimated, this would indicate for Chicago the possession of 400,000 inhabitants; Mr. Edwards, on a very reasonable estimate, places the figure at 350,000.In proof that the claim would not be at all unreasonable, it may be stated that both Baltimore and Philadelphia estimate their population at the proportion of 5½ to every name in the directory; while 400,000 for Chicago would make the ratio less than four to one. However, in claiming a population of 350,000—at the ratio of three and a half to one—we can scarcely be amiss. According to a copy of Mr. Edwards’ directory for the year 1866, which we have looked up for comparison, Chicago four years ago contained a population of 233,000, showing that the city has aded a third of her inhabitants within that insignificant period. Another four years will give the Garden City about half a million souls.
The department devoted to City and County Record is very complete, and will be found extremely useful for reference. It begins with the names of the members in the City Government, and the location of offices. It then proceeds under the following headings: City Officers, Board of Aldermen, standing committees, Boards of Public Works, Health and Police, Police Courts, Stations and Precincts, Fire Department (with a list of alarm boxes), boundaries of wards, with important ordinances; then follows a complete list of the county organization, including the names of all the township officers—the courts, United States officers in Chicago, Military Headquarters, foreign Consuls, Post Office Department, Board of Trade, Chanber of Commerce, banking institutions, insurance companies, publications—which shows that there are 112 newspapers and periodicals published in the city—societies, churches, educational institutions, hospitals and asylums, secret and benefit societies, cemeteries, city railway and and omnibus routes, theatres, and public halls, blocks, and buildings.
If the science of proportion in nomenclature were sufficiently advanced, perhaps this could arrive at a very fair estimate of a city’s population by the recurrence of names. Thus, giving two Smiths to every thousand souls, would give to Chicago with her 800 Smiths a population of 400,000. Of Simon-pure John Smiths there are sixty-four. The Browns have a representation of about 400, and rthe John Browns “march on” to the number of 35. Of Robinsons there are 120, but the Millers claim over 400. There are 9 colored Washingtons, three of them prefixed with the baptismal name of the Father of their country—since the Fifteenth Amendment. Of Lincolns there are 16, but no Abrahams. They are rare. Our Irish population is represented by 250 Murphys, 250 O’Briens, 170 O’Connors, and 160 O’Neils. Our German friends head their list with about 200 Schmidts, and fall back on the modest number of 150 Schultzs. Of the not too common name of Zimmerman there are 61. But our Scandinavian friends, according to the ratio of population, certainly present the strongest claim with 109 Alsens, 113 Olsons, and 67 Nelsons and Nielsons.
The following comparisons between 1866 and 1870 give a fair idea of the growth of the city. The professions and trades have rapidly increased during the past four years, as seen by the following table, which includes only the principals, and not the employes:
Here is another table comparing the years 1866 and 1870 regarding the matter of initial letters of names:
It were strange, indeed, if in a hastily completed work like a city directory, there are not a number of errors, both of omission and commission—of “outs” and “doublets,” as the printer say—and we are not prepared to say that such is not the case with the present edition—in fact, we have had ocular proof that it is far from perfect—but when taken all in all, the work is very creditable, and will well suit the object for which it is compiled. The directory will be circulated among subscribers in a few days.
Chicago Tribune, July 23, 1871
The New Directory.
A correspondent inquires feelingly why the new directory is not out yet. It is only natural that he should be anxious to see his name in print, but the value of the directory, though greatly enhanced by this addition, does not depend solely upon its insertion. The fact is that Mr. Edwards has been very much more busy this year than usual. The names, ages, and religious denominations, birth places, etc., are all to be reckoned up. The work in this case would render the issue of the delivery late. The population is believed to be much greater than the Government census takers reported. Mr. Edwards is certain at present that there are not less than 340,000. To secure all these names requires the utmost care. There is no doubt that when it does appear the directory will be a very complete one.
Chicago Tribune, August 6, 1871
The Population of Chicago.
In June, 1870, the enumerators for the Federal census returned the population of Chicago to be 298,997. In May last, Mr. Edwards, the experienced publisher of city directories, after long preparation, commenced making not only a directory but a census of the city. It is the most perfect thing of the kind ever published in this or any other city. It gives the name of each person proper to be mentioned in a directory, the number of each dwelling, with the number of inmates, and of their sex. In this way he has obtained an accurate statement of the occupants of each building in Chicago. The total is a resident population on June 30, 1871, of 334,270. The gain in that one year in 35,278. The excess of males in 1871 is 6,282, In twelve Wards the males exceed the females, and in several others the sexes are nearly equal. Thus, Ward 1 has 1,701 more males than females, Ward 2 has 1,245, Ward 6 has 1,036, Ward 7 has 922, Ward 8 has 284, Ward 9 has 420, Ward 10 has 834, Ward 11 has 1,196, Ward 15 has 1,078, Ward 17 has 44, Ward 18 has 41, and Ward 20 has 1,056. The wards in which the number of females exceed that of the males are: Ward 3, which has 44, Ward 1 has 888, Ward 5 has 533, Ward 12 has 356, Ward 13 has 618, Ward 14 has 311, Ward 16 has 82, and Ward 19 has 339.
We printed, a few days since, a table shoring the population of 134 of the largest cities in the country, in which Chicago stands No. 5. But, if the Ninth Ward of Chicago was a city by itself, it would be 44 on the list, taking precedence of Dayton, O.; Savannah, Ga.; Utica, N. Y., and other old cities. The Fifteenth Ward would rank 56, or next to Nashville Ten; and the Eighth Ward would follow it. These three wards together exceed Detroit or Milwaukee, Albany or Providence.
The population by divisions is thus stated:
Either of these divisions would constitute a city of the first class,—the North Division being larger then Milwaukee; the South Division being within a few hundreds as large as Cleveland, while the West Division would take rank next after New Orleans, or as the tenth city in point of population in the country. The rapid increase of that part of the city is show in the fact that it lacks but 2,000 of one-half the whole population.
Chicago Tribune, September 19, 1871
Twenty-eight merchants and bank officers of St. Louis, “and hosts of others,” unite in publishing a cars urging the enlightened public of that city to withdraw their patronage from the Chicago directory man and give it to a St. Louis directory man. “It may not be known to some of our citizens,”that the St. Louis directory has been published in Chicago.”
It is sad, indeed, that St. Louis should find her advantage in having her city directory published in Chicago, but it is a greater pity that she should get in the dumps about it and discharge a good directory man and hire a poor one because the former lives and gets his printing done in this “unscrupulous rival” of St. Louis—as our modest and well-behaving city is denominated in the card aforesaid.
Chicago Tribune, March 28, 1881
An old and much-respected citizen, whose life was interwoven with the history of two continents, passed away here yesterday. Thomas M. Halpin was born in the City of London in the year 1823. His parents were Irish, and belonged to a respectable family near Old Castle, in the County of Meath. Although Mr. Halpin was educated in England, his feelings were from the first with the land of his fathers. His spirit caught fire during the repeal agitation of O’Connell, and at a later period he found congenial spirits among that band of young patriots who breathed a new soul into Ireland, the party of Dillon and Davis, of Mitchel and Meagher. He filled the office of Secretary to the Irish Confederation better known as the Young Ireland Party. and was honored by being kept for a while in her Majesty’s prisons at Kilmainham and Naas, because of his advanced National principles. After the failure of the ’48 movement he emigrated to this country, and was for a time associated with D’Arcy McGee, in the publication of an Irish-American weekly in Boston. He afterward became engaged in commercial pursuits in Boston. With MaJ. McClure, of this city, and the celebrated Admiral Semmes he published the Memphis Bulletin until the yellow-fever deprived that journal of readers, when he came North. He was the first to publish a Chicago directory. He also published directories for St. Louis, Louisville, and several other cities. He was a member of the Legislature from the Third District of this city from 1872 to 1876, and was at one time City Assessor. His funeral will take place Tuesday.
Chicago Tribune, August 17, 1882
The record of death has added to its pages the name of Mr. John C. W. Bailey. a man who was well known as a Mason and a publisher in this city. He was born in London in 1803. and came directly to Chicago in 1856, where be made his home and whence he finally passed away ripe in years, Mr. Bailey commenced the publication of a Chicago Directory somewhere about 1860. This enterprise be carried on successfully until 1888. when Edwards Directory took its place. He then commenced the publication of Masonic books, and he was the publisher of a Masonic monthly magazine known as the Voice of Masonry, and later be carried on a commercial printing business with it. Mr. Bailey attained prominence as a Mason through his thorough knowledge of the craft, and his good, old-fashioned, honest wars. He was a man of decided character, good ability, and one who made friends by his kindly ways. At one time he was the President of the St. George’s Society, in whose welfare he took an active part. Though engaged in literary labor, Mr. Bailey never forgot that there was suffering in the world around him, and be always aimed to do good wherever he could. Leading an honorable and useful life he leaves behind him the legacy of an untarnished name. He was twice married, and leaves a daughter living in Oregon, and several grown up children in London, England. His widow survives him The funeral will take place at 2 o’clock this afternoon, from the family residence, and will be conducted under Masonic auspices.
Chicago Tribune, October 23, 1884
David B. Cooke, well known tor many years as a bookseller and publisher in Chicago, died Tuesday, in the 59th year of his age. The deceased, who was a native of Ohio, commenced his business career when 12 years of age in the book store of Derby & Co. of Cincinnati. Coming to Chicago in 185l, he started business on his own account in a little store under the Tremont House. Things went on so prosperously that he soon opened a large store at Nos. 113 and 115 Lake street. At this time Mr. Cooke was a very active and enterprising man, and for several years published the celebrated “Blackwell’s Reports.” An unfortunate crash came, however, and he was compelled to close up. After some time he entered the service of the American Express Company, with whom he remained as correspondent for nearly four years. in 1866 be again entered the book line, in partnership with S. C. Griggs, and they carried on business together for three years at No. 39 Lake street. Severing his connection with Mr. Griggs, be then carried on business along with W. B. Keene, at No. 115 State street, until the big fire in 1871. After the fire they were for a short time on the Lake-Front and Wabash avenue, but finally returned to the old site at No. 115 State street. In 1876 the firm got so deeply involved that the store had to be closed and the partnership dissolved. Mr. Cooke in a short time returned to the American Express Company, in whose service he continued as a purchasing agent till the time of his death. He was an industrious, clever business man, and highly esteemed by all his colleagues and friends. His death was caused by an affection of the beart.
1 The map was not available when the 1863 Directory was printed, so a coupon was tipped in for recipients to exchange for a map when it became available.