Western Toy Company, Western Wheel Works, Dr. Scholl Manufacturing Co., Cobbler Square
Life Span: 1876/1890-Present
Location: Wells and Schiller
Chicago Tribune, September 24, 1876
Pithy Paragraphs Pertaining to the Big Building on the Lake-Shore.
It will be no fault of the Western Toy Company if the people of the West do not now learn how unnecessary it is to look away from Chicago when in search of standard and novel things to amuse and interest children. A generous space is occupied by this Company at the Exposition with a fine exhibit of the various beautiful toys, great and small. made by them. The display is admitted by all visitors to be peculiarly extensive and complete, and will prove entertaining alike to young and old. Retail dealers in toys will find it peculiarly advantageous to examine this exhibit, and to call at the Company’s works, Nos. 495 and 497 North Wells street.
U.S. Patent No. 171,623, December 28, 1875
George W. Marble, of Chicago, Illinois, Assignor of One-Half His Right to Adolph Schoeninger, of same place.
Chicago Daily Telegraph, July 9, 1880
Building permits were yesterday issued to Western Toy Company for a $4,000 engine house at their factory on Schutler street near Wells.
Chicago Tribune, September 26, 1880
The Western Toy Company.
A large pavilion near the northeast corner, with its revolving centre, attracts many visitors. This display is a well-selected stock from the immense factory of the Company at 495 to 503 North Wells street. The exhibit is skillfully arranged, and contains samples of velocipedes, bicycles, propellers, baby carriages, and the thousand and one toys that are the delight of the rising generation.
Inter Ocean, August 16, 1888
Checked Just In Time.
A threatening blaze broke out, a little before 4 o’clock yesterday morning, in the paint shop of the Western Toy Company’s factory, at No. 495 to 503 North Wells street, and for a time it looked as if the entire factory would be destroyed. The flames were discovered by Watchman Stallbaum, who turned in a “still” to engine 27. The paint shop is on the top floor of a three-story brick building, 25×110 feet in dimensions, which stands in the center of the lot. 75×300 feet, occupied by the factory buildings. The flames rapidly spread from the third to the second floor, completely gutting both floors before getting checked. With the exception of those two floors, but little damage was done save by water. As it was the damage is estimated by A. Schoninger, president of the company, at $5,000. The insurance on the building and contents amounted to $12,000, and $18,000 additional insurance was carried on the adjoining buildings and the stock. The front building is of frame, three stories high, and contained most of the valuable machinery and all the finished stock, consisting of bicycles, children’s tricycles, toy express wagons, sleds, toy desks, and furniture. No one could guess the origin of the fire, though the most plausible theory was that of spontaneous combustion among a lot of old oiled rags and waste in the store-room of the paint shop.
Chicago Tribune, August 18, 1889
Western Wheel Works, four story factory, Nos. 134 to 144 Schiller street, to cost $50,000.
The Wheel and Cycling Trade Review, December 20, 1889
Western Wheel Works.
About the first week in September the Western Wheel Works, or, as the concern was then known, the Western Toy Co., began the erection of a new factory, and the way that structure has gone up, says the Chicago Referee, is simply wonderful. On that plot of ground bor-dered by North Wells Street on the east and Schiller Street on the north now stands one of the most extensive factories in the world. The main building is four stories high—225 feet in height, 90 feet in width at one end and 60 at the other. In addition to this there is another building, 100×25 feet; one of 36×66 feet, and the wood shop, 75×125 feet, each three stories high. Nor is this all, for as soon as the winter is over two other structures, one 25×70 and one 25×50, each of three stories, will go up.
The first floors of each building are used as machine shops, and down the whole 225 feet of the main building run lathes and planers four deep. The second floors are occupied by the bench hands and nickel-platers and partly as wheel rooms, while on the third the japanning, setting up, enameling and finishing is done. The top floor is given up entirely to stock, and here thousands of wheels and miles of rubber tires hang from beams or are placed in high piles. At present 250 men are at work, but as soon as the moving from the old quarters is completed the force will be doubled. The factory runs from 495 to 505 Wells Street and from 134 to 144 Schiller Street.
Chicago Tribune, January 19, 1890
The Western Toy company has assigned its ninety-nine year leasehold in the property on the southwest corner of North Wells and Schiller streets to the Western Wheel Works for a consideration of $150,000.
Factory, Wells, Schiller and Sigel sts., North side, main office, 501 Wells st. The largest bicycle manufacturing establishment in America. The factories of this company contain 25,000 square feet of floor space and employ one thousand men. No less than 25,000 safety bicycles were made and sold in 1891. The facilities of the establishment have been doubled. Among the most popular bicycles manufactured here are the Blackhawk, Crescent No. 2, Escort, Crescent No. 1, Juno, Rob Roy No. 3, Rob Roy No. 2, Rob Roy No. 1. Here are also manufactured the Cinch, Combination Junior, Boy’s Junior and Pet. These machines have a market in every part of the world, and owing to their popularity the export trade is constantly increasing. They are everywhere considered among the most reliable and popular. Some of the makes mentioned have been ridden by champions in prize contests throughout the country. Eastern agents, R. L. Coleman & Co., 35 Barclay st., New York.
The Bearings, February 10, 1893
The Inter Ocean, June 16, 1895
The year 1895 is distinctly a bicycle year. The boulevard is crowded with wheels, and their riders are from every walk and avocation of life. The merchant prince, the mistress of fashion, the minister of the gospel, the miller, the milliner, the butcher, the baker, and the candlestick maker, roll along in one grand procession, indifferent to all social and business distinctions, each feeling a fraternal interest in all the rest and each yielding a cheerful obedience to the code of ethics tht governs the democracy of the wheel.
America is home of great enterprises. It os the home particularly of the great bicycle manufactories of the world; the greatest of these is located in Chicago onn the north side of the river not more than a mile from the busy center of the city.
I had supposed that the headquarters of the bicycle industry were in the East, for I can remember when the names of certain brands of those vehicles manufactured on the Atlantic seabord were almost synonymous with the word bicycle itself. But I learned a few days ago that wihin a few blocks from where I am writing these lines two great smokestacks are pouring their caloric into the nether air, at the foot o which a stupendous factory, known as the Western Wheel Works, is turning out more than two-thousand high-grade bicycles every week; this, I believe, is about double the continuous output of any other factory in existence.
Applying at the office of this factory, I was so fortunate as to meet the president of the company, Mr. R. L. Coleman, whose headquarters are in New York, but who happened to be spending a few days at the factory. He greeted me most cordially, and turned me over to one of his subordinates, who, according to Mr. Coleman’s own statement, “knows every brick in the building.”
My well-informed guide took me through the vast establishment and showed me the various stages of development through which the steel and other materials pass until they reach the “assembly-room” and are brought together in a complete bicycle. I wish I could take the readers of The Inter Ocean with me on a similar tour, for it is the only way I could convey to them any adequate idea of the intensely interesting character of the place. I saw nothing at the World’s Fair more wonderful than many of the machines employed in making the various parts of the “Crescent” bicycle. Even the little rivets and other apparently insignificant parts that enter into the construction of the chain, employ some of the most complicated and ingenious machinery in existence. Many of these machines work automatically, one operator looking after five or six of them simply to see that they are supplied with the proper “feed.”
My guide would occasionally point to a machine of especially ingenious contrivance and remark:
- There is a machine that knows as much as a man.
And, after watching it perform its work, I was convinced that he was quite correct, for the machine went ahead and did what its designer made it foe, without stopping to argue the silver question, which is certainly more than a great many of us who call ourselves men have learned to do.
In September, 1893, the R.L. Coleman Company, of New York, formerly Eastern agents for the Western Wheel Works, consolidated with this company. In this reorganization Louis Schoeninger, now dead, was made president; R. L. Coleman, vice president and general manager; Richard Boreicke, treasurer, and L. Scheffler, secretary. At that time it was decided that the policy of the company would be to build wheels of the highest grade at low fixed prices which should remain unchanged for years. Three principal styles of wheels were adopted, the prices being fixed at $75, $50, and $40, respectively. The $75 wheel was for men and women. The $50 wheel was for adults of small stature and for youths and misses, and the $40 wheel was for boys and girls.
These prices are still maintained, while the demands for Crescents have kept increasing from year to year, and manufacturers who started in with $150 as the price of their wheels have reduced it to $125, and now to $100. President Coleman says there can be no doubt that the policy of his company has done more than anything else to bring about the reductions just alluded to.
The output of the Western Wheel Works in 1893 was 38,000. In 1894 it was 46,000. The output for 1895, it is estimated, will be from 50,000 to 60,000.
The present factory, which was built in 1889, has a floor space of 375,000 square feet, and, as previously indicated, furnishes employment of about 1,500 men. There are 325 automatic and other machines in use, and the work done by them, if performed by hand, would require the services of probably ten times as many men. Each automatic machine must do its own particular part of the work perfectly, otherwise any defect will appear immediately when the piece is passed on to the next machine. This insures perfect interchangeability of parts and also furnishes a means of testing every part of the bicycle at every stage of its manufacture. As the wheel is being put together, and again when it is complete, it is subjected to the severest tests, so that there is little or no possibility of either faulty construction or defective material getting into the final composition.
The maxim of the company is “Honest wheels at honest prices.” Mr. Coleman says the grade of the Crescent is as high as that of any wheel made at any price. He insists that $75 will, within the near future, be the maximum price for bicycles.
I was informed that several of the most ingenious and useful of these could be seen nowhere else in the world, the patents being owned exclusively by the Western Wheel Works. All of these are the invention of Mr. Otto Unzicker, vice president and master mechanic of the establishment, who certainly ranks among the most scientific men of his profession.
I have yet to discover the writer who can describe intricate mechanism in detail without becoming tiresome to the general reader, so I will not attempt it here.
At an early stage of my visit I became impressed with the order and cleanliness and perfect discipline that prevailed everywhere. There were no signs of hurry or confusion, and yet the great institution, with its army of 1,500 men, was working up to its full capacity, turning out over 300 Crescent bicycles a day!
The Western Wheel Works is a typical Chicago enterprise. Its growth, like that of the city, has been of the slow and steady variety, but within a few years it has leaped from a small beginning into its present huge dimensions.
The concern was started in 1868 by Adolph Schoeninger, as the Western Toy Company. It was burned out in the great fire of 1871, but Mr. Schoeninger, who is now president of the Home Rattan Company, put it on its feet again, and conducted it under its original name down to 1888, when the name was changed to the Western Wheel Works. In its earlier days it turned out various styles of velocipedes, and it has kept pace with the development of the velocipede and the bicycle, always being prompt in the market with each successive improvement. The growth of the bicycle since 1876, when the name “velocipede,” as applied to the two-wheeled machine, was dropped, denotes the growth of this house. The Safety began to supersede the high-wheeled machine about the year 1888.
People then discovered that in order to rider a wheel one need not take his life in his hands. The practicability of the bicycle as a means of cheap, rapid, exhilarating locomotion was soon recognized. From being the sport of boys, the wheel came to be used by practical serious men and women, as a means of reaching their business and returning without the annoyance incicent to travel in the street cars.
The development of the bicycle from the old-fashioned “bone-shaker,” with its wood wheels and wood spokes, and iron rims, down to the splendid Crescent, which people are now trying to buy faster than the biggest factory in the world can turn them out, is an interesting study.
The first name used by this company for any of its makes of bicycles was “Otto.” This was first made with wood spokes, steel rim and solid steel backbone. Along in the ’70s this wheel was improved by being fitted with steel spokes, rubber tires, and a hollow backbone. When the safeties came into use the name “Crescent” was adopted. Then the ladies took to cycling and the “Juno” was gotten up for their specific use. It was not long till boys and men and girlss and women were all clamoring for wheels, and besides the above named, the company began to make the Rob Roy, and the Boys’ and Girls’ Junior of several patterns each. In 1892 and ’93 the company brought out a light-weight wheel and named it the “Blackhawk.” But the Crescent was the favorite from the start, and one by one the other names were dropped in its favor.
“Where do all these wheels go?” I inquired of my escort, as I saw one big dray load after another being hauled away from the door of the shipping department. “Everywhere,” was the reply. “The Crescent is sold through agents, not only in all the principal cities and towns of the United States and Canada, but in all the principal cities of Europe, Asia, and South America.”
In August of last year, Mr. Coleman was elected president, and Mr. Otto Unzicker, who has been the master mechanic of the company from the start, was made vice president.
President Coleman, during the time that he spends at the factory, goes about in his shirt sleeves and might easily be mistaken for one of the employes. He is a man of intense energy and fine executive ability. Without a dollar of capital he started in 1886 as the Eastern agent of the Western Wheel Works, and today he is the controlling and directing force that governs the whole enterprise. His career is an admirable illustration of wht individual pluck and perseverance cn accomplish.
But I must not fail to acknowledge the evidences of extraordinary mechanical genius that appeared in every department of this great factory. Throughout my entire trip, down those long aisles of whirling, buzzing machinery, I felt a sense of awe for the mind that invented and planned and contrived and arranged all the endless details of this creative wonder, and brought order and harmony and perfection into it all. The hero of this achievement is Otto Unzicker.
One of Mr. Unzicker’s many mechanical triumphs is the sprocket wheel used on the Crescent, and the method of its attachment to the crank axle. This is a radical change from anything else made, and is said to be the lightest, strongest, and most satisfactory arrangement of the kind in the world. Out of the 30,000 now in use, it has not been the subject of a single complaint.
Already is the want of room making itself felt in several departments in the works, and plans have been drawn for an additional six-story building, on Wells street, from Schiller to Sigel, 170 feet deep. This will make a solid block occupied by the Western Wheel Works, bounded by Schiller and Sigel and Wells streets, and North Park avenue. There will also be a story added to the main building and the inside structure wil be torn down and enlarged.—J.A.S.
New York Times, March 15, 1896
That the manufacturing of bicycles is a rapidly increasing industry, no one will for a moment deny, but very few persons are aware of its present immensity.
The output of the Western Wheel Works, makers of the well-known Crescent bicycles, has generally been understood to be larger than that of any other bicycle manufacturing concern, last year they having made and sold the enormous quantity of 57,000 bicycles, and the Crescent people expect their 1896 output will exceed that of last year. For the past twelve weeks they have been shipping their 1896 models by the carload from their immense plant in Chicago to agents in every part of the United States. An average of five carloads a week have been shipped to their Eastern branch at 36 Warren Street, in this city, which is a distributing point for the Eastern and Southern States. Even this quantity has been insufficient to supply the ever-increasing demand and the Western Wheel Works now advises that on last Thursday morning a special train consisting of fifteen large furniture cars loaded with 3,685 Crescent bicycles, started from Chicago, via the Lake Shore and Michigan Southern Railway, and will reach New-York Central about the middle of this week.
The Western Wheel Works were the first concern to ship bicycles by carload. and this is the first time in the history of the industry that these popular pleasure vehicles have been transported by train load. Bicycles by carload have always been considered an immense shipment, as it certainly is, but when one stops to consider an actual shipment of fiftenn carloads of wheels, the quantity can hardly be appreciated. The train will reach Buffalo to-day.
Western Wheel Works
201 W. Schiller Street
1897 Western Wheel Works Catalog
Chicago Tribune, December 14, 1900
Adolph Schoeninger, founder and former President of the Western Wheel works and President of the Home Rattan company, died yesterday in Los Angeles, Cal., of consumption. Mr. Schoeninger left Chicago for California in the latter part of October, hoping to regain his failing health, but the change of climate proved of little benefit. Mrs. Schoeninger, who accompanied him, will bring the body to Chicago for internment.
Mr. Schoeninger laid the foundation of his fortune in the manufacture of children’s toys, and later when his manufacturing business had drifted into the bicycle field he turned over his interest in the Western Wheel works to Richard Boericke, his son-in-law, and established the Home Ratttan company, thus returning to the manufacture of children’s playthings.
Adolph Schoeninger was born in Wiel, Schwaben, in 1833, his first work being as adry goods clerk in Rastaat, Baden. He came to America in 1854, locating in Philadelphia, and on the beginning of the civil war he tool a Captaincy in the Seventy-fifth Pennsylvania Volunteers.
After the close of the war he moved to Chicago, a year later starting a small furniture factory, which was soon after destroyed by fire. Undaunted, he secured another factory and began the manufacture of toys, prospering until 1871, when the great fire wiped away his property. Friends in Europe came to Schoeninger’s assistance, and on borrowed money he had rebuilt his plant within three months of the fire disaster. Ten years later he was out of debt and his plant, which soon after was made the Western Wheel works, had been increasing in size.
Mr. Schoeninger was married on Aug. 20, 1857 to Miss Augusta Riehmann of Philadelphia. Three children, one son and two daughters were born to them, the son and one of the daughters dying. The surviving daughter is Mrs. Boericke.
Chicago Tribune, April 24, 1907
Scholl Manufacturing company, Chicago; capital, $10,000; manufacturing orthopedic appliances; incorporators, William M. Scholl, Arthur G. Peters, Frank G. Cullen.
1907 Lakeside Business Directory of Chicago
Chicago Tribune, October 11, 1914
Chicago Tribune, August 11, 1985
Cobbler Square is a virtuoso exercise in what preservationists call the adaptive reuse of buildings. Architect Kenneth A. Schroeder took a conglomeration of some 30 old interconnected factory and warehouse structures and carved them up into 297 rental apartments. The result is one of the most extraordinary new housing complexes in Chicago.
The buildings reshaped by Schroeder were constructed between 1880 and 1965 in the area bounded by Wells and Schiller Streets and Evergreen and North Park Avenues, adjoining part of the former Old Town honky-tonk strip.
Western Wheel Works, a pioneer bicycle manufacturer, occupied the first buildings on the site until the bike craze faded around 1900. Then came young Dr. William Scholl, who parlayed a line of shoes and foot care products into a corporation grossing more than $250 million a year. Scholl rented a little space in the bike factory at first, then bought the whole shebang and sporadically built a hodgepodge of additions to it.
When Scholl, Inc., moved its Chicago operation to the cheap labor territory of Tennessee in 1981, it left an architecturally hybrid collection of three- and five-story buildings that didn`t seem particularly marketable in as-is form.
Developer Richard Perlman saw the abandoned industrial complex as a special opportunity, however, and commissioned Schroeder to transform it into a residential environment that would appeal to renters seeking chic, offbeat inner city digs. Making one`s first visit to Cobbler Square today is an almost startling experience in some respects.
The new facade facing Wells Street is a crisp and clean essay in brick and limestone, evocative of both Gold Coast images a few blocks to the east and the storefronts of Wells Street itself. Its symmetry, rather cunningly, offers absolutely no hint of the complexity that lies within.
Lining the mildly Postmodern facade at sidewalk level is a series of commercial spaces that will strengthen the street`s economic base of retailing and service shops. At dead center is the main entrance to the apartment complex, a tiny and refreshingly unpretentious seating area that is more a security checkpoint than a lobby.
Beyond is a three-story atrium surmounted by a steel-framed skylight. It is after you have passed through this generously scaled entry spine that the symmetry vanishes and the surprises begin.
Suddenly, off to your right, the structure opens up to an outdoor space delightfully landscaped in an informal, almost woodsy fashion. Rising above its far side is a smokestack preserved from the old Scholl powerhouse. It serves no practical function, but simply states the industrial genesis of the place and stands as a pleasant sort of sculptural pylon. Letting it remain also cost less than tearing it down (old Chinese architecture trick).
Continue your stroll and you pass into a rather fancier lobby landscaped with bamboo and sporting a color-coded sign that gets you off to a start in finding your way around this rather complicated place.
Press forth further, turn, and another courtyard unexpectedly reveals itself. Continue, and a third and even larger courtyard pleases the eye–this one with bubbling fountains and low concrete decorative blocks. All three courtyards, planted with maples and honey locusts, are oases that can almost make you forget you`re in the center of the city–and in a somewhat fringy neighborhood, to boot. Their paving is canted off obliquely to the buildings to avoid a flatly linear look.
Schroeder frequently uses the words ”archeology” and ”layering” when he talks about Cobbler Square. That fits the old-new feel of the place, even though this is one of those occasional works of architecture that defy categorization and cannot be visually pinned down by even the best photographer.
The architect preserved whole sections of the Scholl enclave, destroyed others, saved walls, carved out new spaces, filled in some windows and created others, built elevated footbridges and outdoor hallways, sandblasted, gutted and generated brand new sets of connections, spatial experiences and views. When the job was finished, Schroeder had reduced the 30 original buildings to five, partly by combining some of them.
Since the recycling of old structures became popular in recent years, partly because of federal tax breaks, it has produced a number of standard approaches to handling such jobs. Schroeder and his colleagues didn`t cling to formulas at the Scholl plant, however.
Cobbler Square is neither design by the numbers nor the sort of thing one learns at architecture school. It is largely the result of a richly informed process of intuition. This sense of what is simply right sets Schroeder and other first-rate designers apart from their less talented brethren.
Here and there, Schroeder came close to crossing the line separating rightness from cuteness. As, for example, when he allowed a stump of a wall to remain as though from a ruined abbey. Or when he created a new-old metaphor by leaving a ragged pavement line between aged bricks and fresh concrete. Yet he never quite went for any outright tricks.
Schroeder respected the colors of the masonry and wood in the original buildings, but tastefully enlivened window frames and other new metal components with shades of red and blue. He was concerned about the exterior look of things after dark, and so made subtle use of neon and tiny ”Tivoli” lights embedded in plastic strips.
The architect`s eye for detail is limitless. He left hundreds of old-fashioned fire shutter hooks screwed into exterior walls, for example. They add a little texture, a touch of character–and, Schroeder hopes, may be strung with miniature lights when Cobbler Square tenants are in a festive mood. In other respects, the original industrial look of the complex is retained and even emphasized.
And what of the interiors of the five connected apartment buildings?
Finding one`s way between almost any two points in Cobbler Square can be complicated at first. The complexity of the layout may even annoy some visitors with no sense of adventure. Yet the twists, turns, ups and downs are surely preferable over the arrow-straight, hotel-style corridors common to most contemporary apartment structures.
Beyond that, it is essential to note that the apartments of Cobbler Square were designed for a special market. They were not intended to be ideal environments for golden agers, young children or people who insist on such things as six-piece colonial bedroom sets.
This instead is the kind of place where youngish or young-thinking men and women pay a lot of attention to what they call their lifestyles and (in some apartments) don`t mind climbing tiny staircases to reach the sleeping platforms supporting their futons. And of course this is Chicago–not Lima, Ohio.
Cobbler Square offers what have become known generically as loft-style spaces, ranging in size from 470 to 1,350 square feet. High ceilings, exposed wood trusses, unplastered brick and visible ductwork are the dominant interior elements. Partly because of Schroder`s complicated carving-up process, hardly any two units are precisely alike.
There are very few walls within the apartments, except for those enclosing bathrooms. The idea is that you may create your own partitions by using freestanding bookcases, screens and whatnot. Furnished model apartments suggest ways in which this can be done.
The only brand new structure in this housing spread is a parking garage at the rear, along North Park Avenue, that serves about 60 percent of the apartments. It fits into things rather gracefully, as parking garages go.
Schroeder`s classy overall design performance is all the more a happy event because Cobbler Square has immediately become a large and rather crucial new element in the area bounded by Wells, La Salle and Division Streets and North Avenue. It is worth recalling a bit of history in this respect.
By the 1960s, the Near North area just west of the Gold Coast had in large part become a deteriorated mess. Then came Carl Sandburg Village, a high-rise apartment complex built on urban renewal land and housing 7,000 persons. Sandburg created a new spine of strength between La Salle and Clark Streets, all the way from Division to North.
At about the same time, there occurred the rise and fall of the Old Town commercial strip flanking Wells. In short order, the strip rose from desolation to a low-rent haven for artists to a swinging collection of jazz and folk music clubs, restaurants and offbeat shops.
In its halcyon days, Wells was jammed with suburbanites, conventioners and locals every weekend and pleasantly bustling the rest of the time. If there were too many tourist traps, there were also high quality establishments and a sizzle of excitement that had been drained out of the Loop.
Yet for a variety of economic and social reasons, the strip nosedived in 1968 and never regained its once crackling vitality. Desolation returned, broken by little other than pornography stores, strip joints and fly-specked hot dog stands.
Today, the six-block stretch of Wells has moved into a slow but solid and highly reassuring renaissance whose most important element is housing. A couple of unsavory business places remain, but there are first-rate shops and dining places, and new businesses opening on the street seem promising. Old buildings are undergoing rehabilitation and there is great potential in some large tracts of cleared land.
One block east, along La Salle, rehab and new construction are creating hundreds of solid new dwelling units. Only west of Wells is the prospect less promising, for there lies the Cabrini-Green public housing project, whose problems have long seemed insoluble.
Seen in this broader context, then, Cobbler Square is among the best additions to the neighborhood in recent years–a vehicle of gentrification, actually. And already, according to Schroeder, there is talk of expanding the smart apartment development northward by bridging Schiller Street and constructing a mid-rise with such amenities as a swimming pool.
Schroeder`s tasteful and ingenious recycling of the Scholl factory is obviously an architectural success with considerable fringe benefits.
Western Toy Company
501 Wells Street
Robinson Fire Map
Western Wheel Works Advertisement
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