Rush Medical College
Life Span: 1876-2002
Location: Wood and Harrison Streets
The “Old County Hospital” opened in 1866 in the same building, a three-story brick and limestone structure with “all the modern conveniences,” including a knife, saw, and chisel for autopsies.
From its beginning, the Cook County Hospital was a center for medical education. The first internship in the country was started there in 1866. Neither the interns, chosen by competitive examination, nor the attending physicians were paid, but they gained wide experience with every sort of disease.
Corrupt political appointees controlled hospital purchasing and personnel. The physical plant deteriorated and the building became infested with rats and roaches. As city population increased in the 1870s, the hospital became more crowded. Despite public indifference, physicians prevailed upon the county in 1876 to build a new 300-bed facility between Harrison, Polk, Lincoln, and Wood Streets. Political corruption worsened, and, after almost the entire medical staff resigned, the politicians appointed poorly qualified physicians. In 1886 newspaper articles described the patronage-ridden hospital as a “roadhouse” for politicians.
Chicago Tribune, October 5, 1876
The dedication of the new building designed for the use of Rush Medical College, and situated at the corner of Wood and Harrison streets, took place last evening. The lecture-room was well filled with a fine audience, largely composed of alumni of the College. L. C. P. Freer, President of the Board of Trustees, occupied the chair, and was supported by the following members of the Faculty, comprising both the regular and “spring” courses: Drs. Freer, Allen, Miller, Gunn, Powell, Ross, Holmes, Lyman, Etheridge, Parks, Strong, Danforth, Owens, Wadsworth, Ingals, Case, Hay, Johnson, Bridge, Hayes, Sawyer, and Knox. Dr. Burroughs, Chancellor of the University of Chicago, Bishop McLaren, and many distinguished personages, were also present.
Alter music by a very creditable orchestra, Bishop McLaren offered prayer, and Prof. J. P. Ross, on behalf of the Building Committee, presented the building to the Board of Trustees in a speech of some length, from which the following extracts are made:
At a meeting of the Trustees of Rush Medical College, which was held on May 10, 1875, a Building Committee was appointed with instructions to purchase a lot and erect thereon a new college building. In obedience to instructions the Committee, on the 15th of July following, purchased a lot of ground—147 feet on Harrison street by 100 street on Woods street—and, with the aid of the architect and the advice of the Facility, proceeded at plans to prepare for a new building. These being perfected, we proceeded to erect the college edifice which is just completed, and in which we meet to-night. Our object has been to get up a substantial, convenient, well-lighted, ventilated, and complete in its provisions for every department of medical instruction. In these particulars we think wc have succeeded.
In the anatomical department no means have been spared. The rooms are of easy access, commodious, and high, and are supplied with all the modern conveniences and improvements. The physiological department is furnished with large and elegant rooms under the amphitheatre, for office and class work, for histological and microscopical demonstration and study. The chemical department has rooms connected with the lower a lecture room, a large laboratory for the Professor, and still larger one for students, which will be provided with every convenience for chemical study and experiment.
But in the clinical department of instruction we have the greatest reason to be proud of the provisions made. In the first place, we have associated with the college the “Central Free Dispensary, the entire first floor of this building.
In this connection I will give a brief financial history of our building enterprise. The old college on the North Side cost with the lot $65,000. This property was paid for with money obtained by the issue and sale of sixty-five $1,000 bonds bering interest at the rate of 10 per cent per annum. The great fire destroyed the building and the fire companies in which it was insured, and the financial panic depreciated the value of the value of the real estate to such an extent that when we finally sold it, $8,000 was all we were able to obtain for the old college site. We were also embarrassed by the fact that a number of the college bonds had been disposed of outside of the Faculty. In order to save time and trouble, and in order to have a clear record, we were obligated to buy in these bonds considerably above their real value, and in this way expended about $5, 500. Deducting this sum from the amount received for the lot, we had left only $2,500, and this amount was represented by sixty-five $1,000 bonds. Assets, $2,500; liabilities, $65,000. This is one picture. Let us look at the other.
Now we have a lot which constitutes one-fifth of this entire block, and which cost us $11,000, and an elegant building which has cost us $43,000, making the total cost of lot and building $54,000. Of this amount $33,500 was contributed by the members of the Regular Faculty of the College, from the Spring Faculty, $1,500 was paid in scholarships, and the remainder, $11,000, was loaned to the College by the “Central Dispensary” at 6 per cent per annum for ninety-nine years. We have also reduced our bonds from sixty-live to forty-four in number (all of which are held by the Faculty), and, with the exception of the loan from the Dispensary, are otherwise free from debt.
of this elegant property in the unprecedented financial crisis, without debt, nay, with paying off $10, 000 of an we think, a reasonable snccess.
of the Faculty and Trustees of Rush I desire, in behalf of the Building to-afcturn our thanks for your support aid in all the labor of rebuilding. We Faculty for the readiness with which, in yon paid in your guota of funds as one man without a ripple of discord beginning to the end to push on the enterprise. We would also thank the Spring Faculty at an early stage of the work and assistance, and giving it so readily. ana especially, do we desire to thans of the Board of Trustees for valuable and counsel. having discharged the duties assigned in the name of the Building Committee, to you, as President of the Board of the key of this building.
ACCEPTING THE BUILDUfG. President Freer thanked the’Buflding on behalf of the Board of Trustees, the key and the building. Miller, on behalf of the Faculty, and in a feeling speech made expression of the feelings of bis associates. music, the President called on Gunn, and he in response beauitiful marble bust of Brainerd, the founder of College. In a few well-chosen Gunn paid a feeling tribute to the had for a quarter of a centurv been the head of the college, but also the practitioner in the West-Prof.
F. Ingals, one of the oldest graduates institution, then responded for the and referred to the two crises through Colleee had passed the cholera of tire of five years later. THE ADDRESS. Adams Allen theu delivered the address evening. He was received, and interrupted, with applause.
His address of considerable length, but was with interest throughout its entire The Doctor contrasted the past of with the present, and commented on achievements accomplished period embraced between the of those ancient monuments, and Stonehenee, and the temples of religion and science. The noticed the progress of the Rush Medical from the period after the lire when to content itself with quarters in County-Hospital, then in the Eighteenth-Street Tabernacle, to the present, when it sees of its hopes in the erection of Medical College. Old things had and all things were become new. a time for everything, and the present time when they could mingle congratulations beneath the cap’stone of their new temple, superior to its predecessor. Dr.
Allen the discouragements which had surrounded the College after the fire, and commented pleasantly upon the fact that the had no particular reason to be the benevolence of any one in the endowments. Vast sums of money were wasted in adding to the number of literary while a hundreth part of this, in alone, would have built a scientific unsurpassed in every way. The public notion that the art of medicine was means of earning one’s daily bread, same public forgot that it was interwoven every part of the fabric of societv. important for a few men to thoroughly understand the laws of health, and devote lives to spreading this knowledge than for thousands to acquire cost the ordinary academical, not collegiate, education. But now, that college was a fact, although, after much of various kinds, the chief consideration bow should it advance? Not by or dreamy theorizing, but from of diseiiise itself.
The college should be the photograph of the a college without its hospital and like the play of Hamlet” with the left out. In Rush Medical College fortunately, not the case. The medical dogmatist believed that there new under the sun in medicine, that there twere no discoveries to be made. In medicine complete. There was continual knowledge.
Too much reliance was experimentation without sufficient reliance the higher mental processes. An might be wholly worthless, or, bv use of the thinking faculty, might flaming torch of discoveVv. The experimenter, believing only in his scales, and his scalpel, became the practitioner, guided only by the chart the thermometer, the sperometcr, or, iptiygmograph. Above ail, medical students must learn of nature. Living matter was not to be treated as a rock or a stone.
The medical man must first have the elements of a preliminary education. He was then fitted for the medical college teaching, which was essentially that of “the university, instructing men and not boys. The text-book and recitation plan in vogue in the primary schools was altogether out of place in this university teaching. The government of a medical college should be most liberal. Every man should do what seemed best in Ids own eyes.
The Doctor was justly severe on the incorporated diploma-furnishing shops. A graduate of a medical college should be well grounded in the elements of medical science and art, and possess that reasonable amount of general education and culture which would enable nim to take an honorable position in the profession and in the community. The Doctor denied the truth of the statement that there are too many lectures given In our medical colleges, and said that variety was the condiment which would aid the student’s digestion Students need not attend all these lectures. The weakling need not attend more than one-third of the lectures. In short, students might grade to any course they ehose, and they would be treated well while they were about it.
The present teachers might die of old age in the meantime, but let the pupils be content. The corporation would live. The Doctor had a word to say in favor of the three-years’ course, and a word to say against the annual examinations. In his opinion, students were to be examined for their diplomas in order to ascertain what they knew wuen it came to the graduating-day, and not what they knew a year or two ago. The remainder of the Doctor’s remarks applied to the advantages at Rush College, the clinical teaching, the new hospital, the professional staff, the museum, library, and the address closed with a most pleasant welcome to the members of the class.
The exercises were concluded with the benediction. THE BUILDING thus dedicated to the uses of Rush College Is finely and well constructed of brick, and is four stories in height. It is 78 by 83 feet in ground dimension, and an elegant-looking structure from the street The ground floor is given up to the Central Dispensary, the second and third floors to the lecture- rooms, cabinets, museums, and Professors’ officers. The last flight is occupied by the lecture room, or amphitheatre, which is fifty feet high and will comfortably seat 500 people. The dissecting-room and other unfragrant apartments are also arranged in the best manner known to medical experience, and it is sufficient to say of the who.
edifice that it is probably the best arranged college edifice of its kind in the West, if not in the country. HOMEOPATHIC. THE CHICAGO HOMEOPATHIC COLLEGE having secured the old Academy of Design Building, the oflScials dedicated it to the use of the incoming institution with interesting and appropriate exercises last night. The new rooms are much better adapted to the business of the CoUege than the old. The building is centrally located (comer Michigan avenue and Van Buren street), well lighted, and especially adapted to the purposes of medical instruction.
ne exercises opened last night with a prayer by the Rev. Dr. Everts, after which the President, Dr. J. S.
Mitchell, delivered the inaugural address upon “Medicine as a Study.” After giving to the audience a general review of medicine as a study, the speaker, addressing the students especially, called then- attention immediately to the work before them. He remarked that tne institution had been incorporated under the statutes of the 8tate of Illinois, and is endowed with all the rights, powers, and privileges desirable for a medical college, and is expressly authorized to grant such literary honors and degrees as are usual! granted by like institutions, and give suitable diplomas.” Its diploma is legal in every State and Territory in the United States. Fully realizing that knowledge liberalizes, we intend by striving always iu the direction of a higher standard of education, to make our diploma legal throughout the world. Already by the numerous kind expressions from the profession throughout tne country, by the wide sympathy of the public, and by the matriculation of a fine class of students, is success assured to us. ”Not only while you tread the college-hall, but through your whole professional life, be diligent and earnest in mastering the great principles of our science.
Then, when your labors are ended and you are gathered to your fathers, you shall have the proudest epitaph ever written, for it shall read, He loved his Judge Henry Booth and Henry Strong, followed with short and pointed addresses, impressing upon the minds of those present the necessity for the broad and liberal education which was to be imparted to them in this new and promising institution. They were succeeded by C. C. Bonuey, who delivered a very eloquent address. The ofiicers of the College are President, J.
8. Mitchell, A. M. D. Secretary and Treasurer, Charles Adams, M.
D. Business Manager, Albert G. Beebe, A. M. D.
The Board of Counselors is composed of Messrs. Amos T. Hall, J. D. Harvev, William H.
Bradley, Judge Henry’Bootn, LL. O. W. Potter, Henry Strong, the Hon. W.
C. Goudy, Edson Keith, Esq, the Hon. J. Russell Jones, Samuel Fallows, D.D., Marvin Hughitt, C. C.
Bonney, LL. D. FASHION NOVELTIES. u- K– Ltley, Milwaukee: George H. Daubner.
Waukesha: George W. Gray, Berlin; E. G. Racine; E. G.
s7, W. H. Karns MoHison Grand Conclave closed its session this The millers of this State met thi and organized a State Millers’ About “forty of the prominent mm State were present. I constitution and were adopted, and a permanent effected. The Association is for protection of members against cLn men’ also as a Co-operative THE ‘HOPPER.
Proposition Grand Opening at lUandel A Tbibunb reporter pushed his way through the throng of ladies yesterday at Mandel Brothers’ store. The establishment was crowded from end to end, for it was opening-day, and opening-day at Mandel’s is he feature of the season in the upper circles of Chicago society. The reporter elbowed his way along to see the stock, and found a display that beggared the Exposition, and suggested even an improvement on the Centennial. Each department was decorated with the finest it could evolve, as a prophesy of what might be done when it was crowded, hut the suit and cloak department, perhaps, presented the greater charms for the hundreds upon hundreds of ladies who called to see tbe best material worked into the latest of fashions. There was one that attracted a great deal of attention a frozen water-green faille, a la prin-cewe, with brocade overdress, tournure bouffant, and looped at the sides with band of dress material, and trimmed with chenille fringe underskirt en train, with trimmings of brocade corsage high with low puffed ruff, and fronted with bands of brocade, vest pattern.
Another was a kilt pleated polonaise, forming an entire suit in one garment. The improvement in this department was generally commented upon, and has now arrived at a standard nearly perfection. The cloak element of this part of the display was magnificent. Many of them were trimmed with silver lvnx, a beautiful new fur, natural beaver, chinchilla, silver, otter, and other varieties. Long sealskin saeques, fur-lined silk circulars, with and without sleeve, are coming in with the cold weatner, and were exposed yesterday with fine effect.
The millinery department, presented more than ordinary attractions. There was a chapeau elite of tealle felt, with garniture of rich satin and velvet and silk of the same shade, with handsome wing for face trimming. The most admired for a dress hat of silver pearl, turned up in front and at the sides, and trimmed with a wreath of velvet leaves, with plush scarf over the crown, Cardinal-satin ribbon and graceful bird at the back. Another was of myrtle green, combined with light blue feathers, of shades to match, and sulphur face trimming. The store was elegantly dressed, and the display, from the dress-fabrics and silks to the carpets and rugs, was one of the finest ever known Chicago.
The Messrs. Mandel regret that so many ladies were deprived of the pleasure of seeing their exposition, and, to afford all an opportunity, have concluded to continue the opening during to-day, when every arrangement will be perfect for the accommodation of guests. MILWAUKEE. Special Correspondence ef The Tribune. Milwaukee, Oct.
a The Grand Com-mandery of Knights Templar of this State has convened in this city. The Grand Bodv was received at the New hall House by Wisconsin Commandery, and escorted to Masonic Temple, where the session is to be held. Following are the officers of the Grand Commandery present at the session: Sir C. P. Whilford, E.
Beloit; Sir J. H. Dodge, p. G. Milwaukee’: C.
P. Chapman, E. Capt. -Gen. Sir Rev.
Pry or, Grand Prelate, Dodgeville- Sir Fred Ring, G. S. W. LaCrosse; Sir Utle t. Milwaukee; Sir John Woodhull, SecT Berlin; Sir H.
Ford, G. Oshkosb Skinner, G. Milwaukee. There were also Pent Past E. G.
Commanders HL Palme? sfn-tTr ancntcr, of WhSS PaVt I of Minnesota Fast D. E. C. D. H.
Wright; and P. G. C. G. m.
longs and John Spenee. The election of officers occurs to-morrow moraine ‘owin “re the officers elected bv the SSSJn “vde7 A Knhts Templar, this to a March Festive Insect. Special Dispatch to The Tribune. Sphijigfibld, 111., Oct. 4The received at the Governor’s office to-day Stats or Minnesota, Executive St Pacl, Sept.
30, 1876. -To His John L. Beteridge, Governor of spected I am directed bj Gov. write and extend to you an invitation to be at a conference of the Governor of thl States and Territories who are interested grasshopper question, to he held at Omaha. nt5e ZlJ of October.
The called with the hope that some plan may cd for a nnited action of all the State tones that have in the past suffered from redations of ‘these pests to prevent future tions. It is hoped you will be pleased to he at this conference. I have the honor to respectfully yours, A. Coleman Governor’s OZONIZED OX-MARROW FOR THE By Back Rayner, makersof the “Mars” A1BR 1 AGES i SKOW-PETEIix-OLESB Denmark Sept. 2, by the Bev.
Irunodt. Skow-Petersen, of this city, and Miss Maria Ulesen. of Copenhagen. KEYES-OFFICER-At the residence bride parents, Mr. and Mrs.
Alexander Wednesday evening, Oct. 4, Mr. R. Arthur and Miss Kitty U. Officer, both of this city BWSN WRIGHT On Oct.
3. at dence of the bride’s parents, by the Rev. Wright1, Mf’ P’ A’ McEwen nd MlM DEATHS, Mr AT.mTPT? UnTiitiT rtft nuec beloved wife of Daniel McAlister, aged Ireland, papers please copy. REDFIELD In Kennebank, Sept. in the 50th year of his age, Charles B.
Pittsfield, Mass. formerly of Albany, W- Interment at Albany, Oct. 3. FOX Oct 4, at 6 :30 a. Mrs.
ThresSa beloved wife of Henry E. Fox, on her birthday. Funeral notice hereafter. McELLIGOTT On the 4th day of October, Elizabeth Leahy, wife of Patrick McEllieott. 89 years.
Born in the Town of ListoweL of Kerry, Ireland. Funeral will take plaee on Friday, Oct 6. clock a. m. at the corner of Archer-av.
BonBeld-st. Friends of the family an to attend. WALKER On the 3d inst, at Dundee, Eaton Walker, father of D. T. Walker, of ALFORD Oct 4, at the residence of his brother-in-law, A.
C. Cleveland, 1178 Madison-sL Alford, aged 24 years and 9 months. Funeral Oct. 5, at 1 :30 p. m.
WILLIAMS Harry H. Williams, of Sept 30, of congestion of the brain, at the House. CtfNew York and Brooklyn papers please PIERCE Oct 3, at 69 Grant-place, in in her 58th year, Mrs. Anna M. wife Pierce, of Beloit.
Funeral at Beloit 10 a. m. Friday. LAKE The funeral of Wells C. Lake tended from the house of his father, D.
J. in Lake Forest to-day (Thursday) at 1 A special car for the friends of the leave the Wella-st depot at 11 o’clock, a. POLITICAL AUTWOUM ALTON rlEPUBLICAKS The Hayes and Wheeler Club hold their meeting to-night. Mr. L.
L. Mills, from and other speakers will address the meeting. Dalton Glee Club, with their campaign be present. FTH8T WARD. The reeular weekly meeting of the Consolidated Club takes place this evenirg nuiiireiD, vui uci jam auu ljikc streets.
TEED DISTRICT REPUBLICAN’S. There will be a meetlnc of of the Third Representative District- the Fifth, Sixth, and Seventh Wards, at the east corner of Cacalport avenue and Union fruip evening. FOURTH WARD REPUBLICANS. The regnlar meeting of the Fourth puoncan ltuo win oe ueia at tne Ttnrty-nrst street this evening. Speakers: rion.
ueorge scroggs, editor or the Gazette; Thomas B. seedies, nominee Auditor; A. L. Rockwell, and Col. Boulton.
FOURTH WARD REPUBLICANS. To-night Mr. George Scroggs, editor Champaign Gazette, will address the of the Fourth Ward at their Headquarters Thirty-first street. All are invited. FIFTH WARD REPUBLICANS.
The Republicans of the Fifth Ward will m.i?s meeting tms eveningat Kramer Hail, ‘1 nirty-nrst and Arnold streets. Good win lie in uiienciar.ee. EI0HTH WARD REPUBUCANrI The Eighth Ward Republican Club will evening at their Headquarters, No. 251 Harrison street. All Republicans are invited uruu.
TWELFTH WARD REPUBLIC AN 8 A regular meeting of the Fifth Precinct Ward Hayes and Wheeler Club will be tonight, corner Ogden avenue and Robey Good speakers in attendance. ALCTIOM SALES. By WM. A. BUTTERS i in ami eu waoain-av.
THI RSDAT Oct. 5, at 9:80 WM. A. BUTTERS CO. will offer At their salesrooms, lis and 120 THE USUAL FULL LINES OF DEY GOODS, WOOLEHS, SHIRTS AND DRAWERS, HOSIERY.
GLOVES, EMBROIDERIES. BOOTS. SHOES, E1.ISON, POME ROY Auctioneers, 84 and 86 Randolph-st Regular Friday’s OCT. 6, AT 8:30 A. M.
Ol’B USUAL IMMENSE LAYOUT ALW LARGEST IN THE CITV. New Parlor Suits, New Chamber A full line good new and used CARPETS, LOUNGES. Office Desks, Mattresses, Cooking and ‘reiirrai raouwQoia rnrmturc, vienerai Jiercnanaise, nated Ware. etc. ELISON.
POMER0T By O. P. OORE 68 and 70 Wabash-av. On 8ATTTODAY. Oct.
7, at 9 30 o’clock, 10 J. Crockery. Yellow and Rockingham Ware, Imported Vsu.es. Mantel Seta. Toilet Sets, an cim.3.
nc siiau close. garuless of prices. HOUiSKHOLD FI RNITritK. Walnut Bedstead and Bureaus, Marble -Top Ride Boards. Extension Tables.
Walnut ivucKera. rarior ei. Hail Trees. Chamber Sets, bOOK-cases. Mirrors, Parlor Desks, Lounge, Show Office Desks, Mattresses, Springs.
Carpets, Clocks. At 11 o’clock Buggies, carriaire. Harnesses. GEORGE P. GORE 4 By JAS.
P. McNAMABA 117 cor. Madison -Rt. 500 CASES BOOTS AND SHOES AT Thursday Morning, Oct. at 9:30 o’clock.
JAS. P. McNAMARA By HIRAM BRUSH, Auctioneer. Office, 108 Fifth-av. First-class Showcases at auction.
At No. Thursday. Oct. 5, at 10a. will be stock of metal and wood Showcases, all of ime’s make also a line of Showcase frames to-ished.
HIRAM BRUSH, By MOSES LARGE OPENING SALE OF DRY GOODS AND TUESDAY, Oct. 10, 1878. commencing at ASSIGrNEE’SliOTiCE. All persons baring claims against the estate Ladd or Merrll Ladd are requested to them without delay, properly authenticated, undernltraed at Evanston, 1ILV ANDREW RICHMOND, Evanston. Cook Ill-, Oct.
4. 1876; ONFECTIOERY. CELEBRATED the Union expressed parts. 1 lb and 25, 40, 60c per ft. orders GUNTHER.
Uoner, Chicago. CANDY.
Marquis’ Hand-Book of Chicago, 1884:
Rush Medical College is the oldest medical college in Chicago, and was the first educational institution incorporated in the Northwest. It was started in embryo in 1836 by Dr. Daniel Brainard, who for many years led the medical faculty of the west. Dr. Brainard, with Dr. G. C. Goodhue, of Rockford, Ill., secured an act of incorporation which was approved in 1837, but owing to the prevailing financial depression, the college did not organize until 1843, when two sniall rooms were fitted up on Clark Street, and a course of lectures delivered by the faculty, consisting of Drs. Brainard, Knapp, Blaney and McLean. In 1844 some North Side citizens donated a lot on which was erected a building costing $3,500. In 1855 this was remodeled and enlarged to accommodate 250 students. In 1867 a new building was erected at a cost of about $100,000, but, on the fated 9th of October, 1871, the structure, with all its contents, disappeared in the flames. A temporary place was secured for lectures in the old County Hospital, and later a temporary structure was erected on Eighteenth Street.
Cook County Hospital
In 1875, the present building, at the corner of Wood and Harrison Streets was finished and occupied. It is one of the most complete institutions of the kind on the continent. It has two lecture rooms, each with a seating capacity of over 500 and thoroughly equipped. There are anatomical, physiological, clinical and chemical departments. The Central Free Dispensary is connected with the clinical department, and 2,000 cases are treated annually in the County Hospital. The value of the college property is about $125,000. The number of graduates per annum is about 175.
Rush Medical College
The Presbyterian Hospital was erected by the college, and then transferred to the Presbyterian Hospital Society—the faculty remaining in professional charge of the patients. The faculty is composed of twelve members. J. Adams Allen, M. D., is president.
Rush Medical College